eli5 bitcoin halving - edvforme.org

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Can someone ELI5 on how bitcoin price is calculated? There are 1.7 million subscribers in r/bitcoin, what would happen to price if everyone here owned 1 btc? (x-post from /r/Bitcoin)

submitted by ASICmachine to CryptoCurrencyClassic [link] [comments]

ELI5 where and how is the value of bitcoin being calculated?

This is not a question about supply and demand - that part is straightforward enough! I'm asking what is actually looking at how people are currently trading and calculating the current bitcoin value as 17442.3 USD? Where is this being determined? This might be something really obvious and I'm just a bit slow ^
submitted by odradek123 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

ELI5 where and how is the value of bitcoin being calculated? /r/Bitcoin

ELI5 where and how is the value of bitcoin being calculated? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Can anyone ELI5 if the Bitcoin-mining computerpower could be used to calculate something more worthwhile than it currently does?

If I understand correctly, the mining serves the purpose of creating more bitcoins, while validating transactions in the network with those calculations.
The calculations get harder over time, but what I'm wondering about, is if part of the capacity could be potentially used to help a greater cause, like scientific research, without lost mining-capacity for the miners themselves.
Hope someone can clarify this to me, thanks a lot!
submitted by Avokineok to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

ELI5: why is it hard for wallets to calculate dynamic fees? /r/Bitcoin

ELI5: why is it hard for wallets to calculate dynamic fees? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

ELI5: are the lost coins addressed in the market cap calculations? /r/Bitcoin

ELI5: are the lost coins addressed in the market cap calculations? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

ELI5: How is the value of currency determined? Who sets the price of dollars/pounds/bitcoins and how do they calculate it?

submitted by haddock420 to explainlikeimfive [link] [comments]

Best General RenVM Questions of April 2020

Best General RenVM Questions of April 2020
\These questions are sourced directly from Telegram*
Q: Quick question here, but any plan to bridge as well with the Tezos protocol? Using soon to be released Ren network could be a key advantage to be the first with a viable solution on their protocol. Plus Ren is indépendant of ETH (collateral speaking) making it interesting for other protocols.
A: Yes, this is very much possible. RenVM can work with any ‘destination chain’ that has smart contract functionality. We’ll be exploring others like Polkadot, Tezos, etc.. once it makes sense and we are happy with the Ethereum side of things.
Q: How many physical Darknodes will be in Greycore?
A: It depends on the final cohort, but it’ll be 15+ as each team will run a few Darknodes. Even the Greycore, our most “centralized” part of RenVM (at first) will be more decentralized than all competitors. Also, it is not so important the number of nodes as it is the number of members. More nodes = more architectural decentralization, but not more political decentralization. That is, more fault tolerance, but not more Byzantine fault tolerance.
Q: Once RenVM gets going, is there a way to measure cross-(on)chain volume?
A: We’ll be measuring any/all volume that flows through RenVM. This info will be available in the new Command Center (CC), GraphProtocol, etc.
Q: What is the reasoning for disabling auto-updates for Darknodes? Will operators get to choose if auto updates are allowed or not?
A: Auto updates of things that control funds is generally a bad idea. Someone could poison the repo you’re using for updates and you’d have no control. Further, disabling auto-updating means that governance is in the hands of the Darknodes, albeit in a very ad hoc way (excluding the smart contracts on Ethereum).
Q: I know you have addressed this before, but here’s a discussion about ren’s ability to mint renBTC being limited by its public market cap. I think the team is coming up with a way to have the Darknode capacity determined by Darknodes based on revenue rather than the price of ren right?
A: This design is one of RenVM's biggest comparative advantages over other designs. The value of REN (as calculated by Darknodes) and thus RenVM's capacity are directly tied to usage of RenVM. The more renBTC minted/burned, the greater Darknodes' revenues, the higher value of REN, the greater capacity to mint more. It's a positive feedback loop where increased usage increases capacity. To your question, the "3" in L<3 will be calculated by Darknodes strictly by revenues, not by a potentially manipulable oracle. Although this may be a soft cap in Zero and One with Greycore secondary sigs and continuous fees.
Conversely, tBTC's bond is overcollateralized by ETH, which is uncorrelated to usage of tBTC. Because the price of ETH does not increase with usage of tBTC, increased usage of tBTC will require more and more ETH to stay overcollateralized. As the article says, just 1% ($1.34B) of BTC's market cap ($134B) in tBTC would require $2.01B in bonded ETH, which is 10% of all ETH. 5% of BTC in tBTC, 56% of ETH.
A bond whose value is tied to usage of its own network allows capacity to scale linearly.
Further: Collateral is not the problem. Any technique that anyone uses to reduce collateral should be usable by any system doing interop. The real difference is that RenVM using its own token, so it is able to adjust its own economic parameters, and it does not need liquidation which we have seen fail as recently as last month.
-Use RenVM => REN worth more => higher cap => can use RenVM even more
-Use tBTC => ETH fluctuates independently => liquidations can occur => node operators get liquidated => can use tBTC less
RenVM is much more capital efficient in the long-term, regardless of the specific collateral ratios required. It also doesn’t expose Darknodes to ETH risk (and even renBTC holders, if renBTC could sometimes only be reclaimed for ETH not actual BTC, like it systems with liquidation).
Lastly, it has a bunch of practical defenses, like constantly shuffling its Darknode shards (instead of them sticking around for up to 6 months). And we have some nice UX features, like being able to move any amount of BTC at any time, straight into a smart contract call.
Q: https://preview.tbtc.network/cms/resource/tbtc-security-model/developers/tbtc-security-model/. At the end of the article Ren's security model is briefly discussed, is this correct?
A: For the record, that is an incorrect summary (either through not being sure how things works, or in an attempt to discredit our security model). RenVM is not a federated peg. Our shards are designed to have up to ~200 nodes in them. tBTC has three (3). Seems the latter is a lot closer to a federation than the former.
Q: So RenVM can run on Binance chain instead of Ethereum? Or what would be the advantage (or goal)? Pls eli5. A: RenVM doesn’t run on any chain; it is its own network. However, it has host chains which are chains to which it can send assets. For example, you can send BTC to Ethereum, and in this scenario Ethereum is the host chain (it is hosting a non-native asset). Supporting Binance Chain would imply that RenVM can use it as another host chain.
Q: If another host chain is implemented, would cross-host chain transactions be possible without doing any transactions with the token. Like: Bitcoin -> renBTC_ETH -> renBTC_BNB
Without an intermediate step, and without paying Bitcoin transactions on the Bitcoin network. Unlike: Bitcoin -> renBTC_ETH -> Bitcoin -> renBTC_BNB
A: Yep. A burn event would be generated on one host chain, and RenVM would produce a minting signature for the other host chain. No BTC moves on the Bitcoin chain, so no Bitcoin fees would be required. RenVM would still take a fee though.
Q: Reading about sharding in the docs: it mentions load balancing. Would that be done on a monthly basis as the changeover in keys is done?
A: At minimum, once per epoch.
Q: I'm sure there were discussions about this before but I can't find anything on it. Is there a possibility where assets in custody in REN network could be greater than 1/3 of value of REN tokens and have the network still be secure? Or is this a big no no that the network will have to do everything for the 1/3 threshold not be crossed ?
A: It’s not a big no no, it is still well collateralized at that point. However, it is a no no. 1/3rd is the limit above which an attack becomes theoretically profitable. It is still not practically profitable at that stage, and is also very difficult to actually pull off such an attack. So RenVM must aim to keep under 1/3rd, but if that threshold is crossed nothing bad happens immediately (this gives some time for fee adjustments that should have already been put in place by this point to kick in).
We’re also looking at some proposals internally around how to recover the peg even if an attack does succeed (because 1/3rd is crossed by enough, and for long enough, that a profitable attack succeeds, or because an irrational attacker has decided to attack without the want for profit).
That’s correct. We class these actors as “irrational adversaries”. This is an attacker that doesn’t care about the profitability as modelled by the protocol. It’s important to be able to resist such adversaries because, as you point out, there are adversaries that can achieve be profit from RenVM in a way that cannot be feasibly modelled.
Q: How many hours can my VPS be down before it's Deregistered (not shalshed)?
A: 12 hours. We’ll use Mainnet Subzero to establish parameters and change the thresholds if needed.
Q: Which VPS provider (for Darknodes) is next?
A: Azure is the next one on our list of VPS’s to support.
submitted by RENProtocol to RenProject [link] [comments]

/r/Bitcoin FAQ - Newcomers please read

Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments.
Some great introductions for new users are My first bitcoin, Bitcoin explained and ELI5 Bitcoin. Also, the following videos are a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Also have to give mention to Lopp.net, the Princeton crypto series and James D'Angelo's Bitcoin 101 Blackboard series. Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found at the Satoshi Nakamoto Institute. Bitcoin statistics can be found here, here and here. Developer resources can be found here, here and here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here. Potential upcoming protocol improvements here. Scaling resources here. The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here (LOL!), and of course Satoshi Nakamoto's whitepaper that started it all! :)
Key properties of bitcoin

Where can I buy bitcoins?

Bitcoin.org, BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com and Howtobuybitcoin.io are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also, check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Bank Transfer Credit / Debit card Cash
Gemini Bitstamp LocalBitcoins
Bitstamp Bitit Mycelium LocalTrader
BitFinex Cex.io LibertyX
Cex.io CoinMama WallofCoins
Xapo Spectrocoin BitcoinOTC
Kraken Luno BitQuick
itBit
HitBTC
Bitit
Bisq (decentralized)
Luno
Spectrocoin
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Bitwage.
Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
Android iOs Desktop
Samouari BreadWallet Electrum
Another interesting use case for physical storage/transfer is the Opendime. Opendime is a small USB stick that allows you to spend Bitcoin by physically passing it along so it's anonymous and tangible like cash.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account, usually from a text message or app, making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Google Auth Authy
Android Android
iOS iOS

Where can I spend bitcoins?

Check out spendabit or bitcoin directory for some good options, some of the more commons ones are listed below.
Store Product
Gyft Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.
Steam, HumbleBundle, Games Planet, itch.io, g2g and kinguin For when you need to get your game on
Microsoft Xbox games, phone apps and software
Spendabit, Overstock, The Bitcoin Directory and BazaarBay Retail shopping with millions of results
ShakePay Generate one time use Visa cards in seconds
NewEgg and Dell For all your electronics needs
Bitwa.la, Coinbills, Piixpay, Bitbill.eu, Bylls, Coins.ph, Bitrefill, LivingRoomofSatoshi, Hyphen.to, Coinsfer, More #1, #2 Bill payment
Menufy, Takeaway, Thuisbezorgd NL, Pizza For Coins Takeout delivered to your door!
Expedia, Cheapair, Lot, Destinia, BTCTrip, Abitsky, SkyTours, Fluege the Travel category on Gyft and 9flats For when you need to get away
BitHost VPS service
Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA VPN services
Namecheap, Porkbun For new domain name registration
Stampnik Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage
Reddit Gold Premium membership which can be gifted to others
Coinmap and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. A good resource for UK residents is at wheretospendbitcoins.co.uk.
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations, such as Wikipedia, United Way, ACLU and the EFF. You can find a longer list here.

Merchant Resources

There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. Bitseed is an easy option for getting set up. You can view the global node distribution here.

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
Site Description
WorkingForBitcoins, Bitwage, XBTfreelancer, Cryptogrind, Bitlancerr, Coinality, Bitgigs, /Jobs4Bitcoins, Rein Project Freelancing
OpenBazaar, Purse.io, Bitify, /Bitmarket, 21 Market Marketplaces
Streamium.io, XOtika.tv NSFW, /GirlsGoneBitcoin NSFW Video Streaming
Bitasker, BitforTip Tasks
Supload.com, SatoshiBox, JoyStream, File Army File/Image Sharing
CoinAd, A-ads, Coinzilla.io Advertising
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins)

Bitcoin Projects

The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
Project Description
Lightning Network, Amiko Pay, and Strawpay Payment channels for network scaling
Blockstream, Rootstock and Drivechain Sidechains
21, Inc. Open source library for the machine payable web
ShapeShift.io Trade between bitcoins and altcoins easily
Open Transactions, Counterparty, Omni, Open Assets, Symbiont and Chain Financial asset platforms
Hivemind and Augur Prediction markets
Mediachain Decentralized media library
Tierion and Factom Records & Titles on the blockchain
BitMarkets, DropZone, Beaver and Open Bazaar Decentralized markets
Samourai and Dark Wallet - abandoned Privacy-enhancing wallets
JoinMarket CoinJoin implementation (Increase privacy and/or Earn interest on bitcoin holdings)
Coinffeine and Bisq Decentralized bitcoin exchanges
Keybase and Bitrated Identity & Reputation management
Telehash Mesh networking
JoyStream BitTorrent client with paid seeding
MORPHiS Decentralized, encrypted internet
Storj and Sia Decentralized file storage
Streamium Pay in real time for on-demand services
Abra Global P2P money transmitter network
bitSIM PIN secure hardware token between SIM & Phone
Identifi Decentralized address book w/ ratings system
BitGo Multisig bitcoin API
Bitcore Open source Bitcoin javascript library
Insight Open source blockchain API
Leet Kill your friends and take their money ;)

Bitcoin Units

One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin SI unit for milli i.e. millilitre (mL) or millimetre (mm)
microbitcoin μBTC 1,000,000 per bitcoin SI unit for micro i.e microlitre (μL) or micrometre (μm)
bit bit 1,000,000 per bitcoin Colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin Smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $10000 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki.
Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit. A complete list of bitcoin related subreddits can be found here
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by BinaryResult to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Long live decentralized bitcoin(!) A reading list

Newbs might not know this, but bitcoin recently came out of an intense internal drama. Between July 2015 and August 2017 bitcoin was attacked by external forces who were hoping to destroy the very properties that made bitcoin valuable in the first place. This culminated in the creation of segwit and the UASF (user activated soft fork) movement. The UASF was successful, segwit was added to bitcoin and with that the anti-decentralization side left bitcoin altogether and created their own altcoin called bcash. Bitcoin's price was $2500, soon after segwit was activated the price doubled to $5000 and continued rising until a top of $20000 before correcting to where we are today.
During this drama, I took time away from writing open source code to help educate and argue on reddit, twitter and other social media. I came up with a reading list for quickly copypasting things. It may be interesting today for newbs or anyone who wants a history lesson on what exactly happened during those two years when bitcoin's very existence as a decentralized low-trust currency was questioned. Now the fight has essentially been won, I try not to comment on reddit that much anymore. There's nothing left to do except wait for Lightning and similar tech to become mature (or better yet, help code it and test it)
In this thread you can learn about block sizes, latency, decentralization, segwit, ASICBOOST, lightning network and all the other issues that were debated endlessly for over two years. So when someone tries to get you to invest in bcash, remind them of the time they supported Bitcoin Unlimited.
For more threads like this see UASF

Summary / The fundamental tradeoff

A trip to the moon requires a rocket with multiple stages by gmaxwell (must read) https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/438hx0/a_trip_to_the_moon_requires_a_rocket_with/
Bram Cohen, creator of bittorrent, argues against a hard fork to a larger block size https://medium.com/@bramcohen/bitcoin-s-ironic-crisis-32226a85e39f#.558vetum4
gmaxwell's summary of the debate https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1343716.msg13701818#msg13701818
Core devs please explain your vision (see luke's post which also argues that blocks are already too big) https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/61yvvv/request_to_core_devs_please_explain_your_vision/
Mod of btc speaking against a hard fork https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/57hd14/core_reaction_to_viabtc_this_week/d8scokm/
It's becoming clear to me that a lot of people don't understand how fragile bitcoin is https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/59kflj/its_becoming_clear_to_me_that_a_lot_of_people/
Blockchain space must be costly, it can never be free https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4og24h/i_just_attended_the_distributed_trade_conference/
Charlie Lee with a nice analogy about the fundamental tradeoff https://medium.com/@SatoshiLite/eating-the-bitcoin-cake-fc2b4ebfb85e#.444vr8shw
gmaxwell on the tradeoffs https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1520693.msg15303746#msg15303746
jratcliff on the layering https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/59upyh/segwit_the_poison_pill_for_bitcoin/d9bstuw/

Scaling on-chain will destroy bitcoin's decentralization

Peter Todd: How a floating blocksize limit inevitably leads towards centralization [Feb 2013] https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=144895.0 mailing list https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2013-February/002176.html with discussion on reddit in Aug 2015 https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3hnvi8/just_a_little_history_lesson_for_everyone_new_the/
Nick Szabo's blog post on what makes bitcoin so special http://unenumerated.blogspot.com/2017/02/money-blockchains-and-social-scalability.html
There is academic research showing that even small (2MB) increases to the blocksize results in drastic node dropoff counts due to the non-linear increase of RAM needed. http://bravenewcoin.com/assets/Whitepapers/block-size-1.1.1.pdf
Reddit summary of above link. In this table, you can see it estimates a 40% drop immediately in node count with a 2MB upgrade and a 50% over 6 months. At 4mb, it becomes 75% immediately and 80% over 6 months. At 8, it becomes 90% and 95%. https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5qw2wa_future_led_by_bitcoin_unlimited_is_a/dd442pw/
Larger block sizes make centralization pressures worse (mathematical) https://petertodd.org/2016/block-publication-incentives-for-miners
Talk at scalingbitcoin montreal, initial blockchain synchronization puts serious constraints on any increase in the block size https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgjrS-BPWDQ&t=2h02m06s with transcript https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/montreal2015/block-synchronization-time
Bitcoin's P2P Network: The Soft Underbelly of Bitcoin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6kibPzbrIc someone's notes: https://gist.github.com/romyilano/5e22394857a39889a1e5 reddit discussion https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4py5df/so_f2pool_antpool_btcc_pool_are_actually_one_pool/
In adversarial environments blockchains dont scale https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/hongkong2015/in-adversarial-environments-blockchains-dont-scale
Why miners will not voluntarily individually produce smaller blocks https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/hongkong2015/why-miners-will-not-voluntarily-individually-produce-smaller-blocks
Hal Finney: bitcoin's blockchain can only be a settlement layer (mostly interesting because it's hal finney and its in 2010) https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3sb5nj/most_bitcoin_transactions_will_occur_between/
petertodd's 2013 video explaining this https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZp7UGgBR0I
luke-jr's summary https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/61yvvv/request_to_core_devs_please_explain_your_vision/dficjhj/
Another jratcliff thread https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6lmpll/explaining_why_big_blocks_are_bad/

Full blocks are not a disaster

Blocks must be always full, there must always be a backlog https://medium.com/@bergealex4/bitcoin-is-unstable-without-the-block-size-size-limit-70db07070a54#.kh2vi86lr
Same as above, the mining gap means there must always be a backlog talk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2453&v=iKDC2DpzNbw transcript: https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/montreal2015/security-of-diminishing-block-subsidy
Backlogs arent that bad https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/49p011/was_the_fee_event_really_so_bad_my_mind_is/
Examples where scarce block space causes people to use precious resources more efficiently https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4kxxvj/i_just_singlehandedly_increased_bitcoin_network/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/47d4m2/why_does_coinbase_make_2_transactions_pe
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/53wucs/why_arent_blocks_full_yet/d7x19iv
Full blocks are fine https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5uld1a/misconception_full_blocks_mean_bitcoin_is_failing/
High miner fees imply a sustainable future for bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinMarkets/comments/680tvf/fundamentals_friday_week_of_friday_april_28_2017/dgwmhl7/
gmaxwell on why full blocks are good https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6b57ca/full_blocks_good_or_bad/dhjxwbz/
The whole idea of the mempool being "filled" is wrong headed. The mempool doesn't "clog" or get stuck, or anything like that. https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/7cusnx/to_the_people_still_doubting_that_this_congestion/dpssokf/

Segwit

What is segwit

luke-jr's longer summary https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6033h7/today_is_exactly_4_months_since_the_segwit_voting/df3tgwg/?context=1
Charlie Shrem's on upgrading to segwit https://twitter.com/CharlieShrem/status/842711238853513220
Original segwit talk at scalingbitcoin hong kong + transcript https://youtu.be/zchzn7aPQjI?t=110
https://scalingbitcoin.org/transcript/hongkong2015/segregated-witness-and-its-impact-on-scalability
Segwit is not too complex https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/57vjin/segwit_is_not_great/d8vos33/
Segwit does not make it possible for miners to steal coins, contrary to what some people say https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/5e6bt0/concerns_with_segwit_and_anyone_can_spend/daa5jat/?context=1
https://keepingstock.net/segwit-eli5-misinformation-faq-19908ceacf23#.r8hlzaquz
Segwit is required for a useful lightning network It's now known that without a malleability fix useful indefinite channels are not really possible.
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5tzqtc/gentle_reminder_the_ln_doesnt_require_segwit/ddqgda7/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5tzqtc/gentle_reminder_the_ln_doesnt_require_segwit/ddqbukj/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5x2oh0/olaoluwa_osuntokun_all_active_lightning_network/deeto14/?context=3
Clearing up SegWit Lies and Myths: https://achow101.com/2016/04/Segwit-FUD-Clearup
Segwit is bigger blocks https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5pb8vs/misinformation_is_working_54_incorrectly_believe/dcpz3en/
Typical usage results in segwit allowing capacity equivalent to 2mb blocks https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/69i2md/observe_for_yourself_segwit_allows_2_mb_blocks_in/

Why is segwit being blocked

Jihan Wu (head of largest bitcoin mining group) is blocking segwit because of perceived loss of income https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/60mb9e/complete_high_quality_translation_of_jihans/
Witness discount creates aligned incentives https://segwit.org/why-a-discount-factor-of-4-why-not-2-or-8-bbcebe91721e#.h36odthq0 https://medium.com/@SegWit.co/what-is-behind-the-segwit-discount-988f29dc1edf#.sr91dg406
or because he wants his mining enterprise to have control over bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6jdyk8/direct_report_of_jihan_wus_real_reason_fo

Segwit is being blocked because it breaks ASICBOOST, a patented optimization used by bitmain ASIC manufacturer

Details and discovery by gmaxwell https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2017-April/013996.html
Reddit thread with discussion https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63otrp/gregory_maxwell_major_asic_manufacturer_is/
Simplified explaination by jonny1000 https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/64qq5g/attempted_explanation_of_the_alleged_asicboost/
http://www.mit.edu/~jlrubin/public/pdfs/Asicboost.pdf
https://medium.com/@jimmysong/examining-bitmains-claims-about-asicboost-1d61118c678d
Evidence https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63yo27/some_circumstantial_evidence_supporting_the_claim/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63vn5g/please_dont_stop_us_from_using_asicboost_which/dfxmm75/
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63soe3/reverse_engineering_an_asic_is_a_significant_task/dfx9nc
Bitmain admits their chips have asicboost but they say they never used it on the network (haha a likely story) https://blog.bitmain.com/en/regarding-recent-allegations-smear-campaigns/
Worth $100m per year to them (also in gmaxwell's original email) https://twitter.com/petertoddbtc/status/849798529929424898
Other calculations show less https://medium.com/@vcorem/the-real-savings-from-asicboost-to-bitmaintech-ff265c2d305b
This also blocks all these other cool updates, not just segwit https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63otrp/gregory_maxwell_major_asic_manufacturer_is/dfw0ej3/
Summary of bad consequences of asicboost https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/64qq5g/attempted_explanation_of_the_alleged_asicboost/dg4hyqk/?context=1
Luke's summary of the entire situation https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ego3s/why_is_killing_asicboost_not_a_priority/diagkkb/?context=1
Prices goes up because now segwit looks more likely https://twitter.com/TuurDemeestestatus/849846845425799168
Asicboost discovery made the price rise https://twitter.com/TuurDemeestestatus/851520094677200901
A pool was caught red handed doing asicboost, by this time it seemed fairly certain that segwit would get activated so it didnt produce as much interest as earlier https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6p7lr5/1hash_pool_has_mined_2_invalid_blocks/ and https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6p95dl/interesting_1hash_pool_mined_some_invalid_blocks/ and https://twitter.com/petertoddbtc/status/889475196322811904
This btc user is outraged at the entire forum because they support Bitmain and ASICBOOST https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/67t43y/dragons_den_planned_smear_campaign_of_bitmain/dgtg9l2/
Antbleed, turns out Bitmain can shut down all its ASICs by remote control: http://www.antbleed.com/

What if segwit never activates

What if segwit never activates? https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ab8js/transaction_fees_are_now_making_btc_like_the_banks/dhdq3id/ with https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5ksu3o/blinded_bearer_certificates/ and https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4xy0fm/scaling_quickly/

Lightning

bitcoinmagazine's series on what lightning is and how it works https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/understanding-the-lightning-network-part-building-a-bidirectional-payment-channel-1464710791/ https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/understanding-the-lightning-network-part-creating-the-network-1465326903/ https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/understanding-the-lightning-network-part-completing-the-puzzle-and-closing-the-channel-1466178980/
The Lightning Network ELIDHDICACS (Explain Like I Don’t Have Degrees in Cryptography and Computer Science) https://letstalkbitcoin.com/blog/post/the-lightning-network-elidhdicacs
Ligtning will increases fees for miners, not lower them https://medium.com/lightning-resources/the-lightning-paradox-f15ce0e8e374#.erfgunumh
Cost-benefit analysis of lightning from the point of view of miners https://medium.com/@rusty_lightning/miners-and-bitcoin-lightning-a133cd550310#.x42rovlg8
Routing blog post by rusty https://medium.com/@rusty_lightning/routing-dijkstra-bellman-ford-and-bfg-7715840f004 and reddit comments https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/4lzkz1/rusty_russell_on_lightning_routing_routing/
Lightning protocol rfc https://github.com/lightningnetwork/lightning-rfc
Blog post with screenshots of ln being used on testnet https://medium.com/@btc_coach/lightning-network-in-action-b18a035c955d video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mxGiMu4V7ns
Video of sending and receiving ln on testnet https://twitter.com/alexbosworth/status/844030573131706368
Lightning tradeoffs http://www.coindesk.com/lightning-technical-challenges-bitcoin-scalability/
Beer sold for testnet lightning https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/62uw23/lightning_network_is_working_room77_is_accepting/ and https://twitter.com/MrHodl/status/848265171269283845
Lightning will result in far fewer coins being stored on third parties because it supports instant transactions https://medium.com/@thecryptoconomy/the-barely-discussed-incredible-benefit-of-the-lightning-network-4ce82c75eb58
jgarzik argues strongly against LN, he owns a coin tracking startup https://twitter.com/petertoddbtc/status/860826532650123264 https://twitter.com/Beautyon_/status/886128801926795264
luke's great debunking / answer of some misinformation questions https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6st4eq/questions_about_lightning_network/dlfap0u/
Lightning centralization doesnt happen https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6vzau5/reminder_bitcoins_key_strength_is_in_being/dm4ou3v/?context=1
roasbeef on hubs and charging fees https://twitter.com/roasbeef/status/930209165728825344 and https://twitter.com/roasbeef/status/930210145790976000

Immutability / Being a swiss bank in your pocket / Why doing a hard fork (especially without consensus) is damaging

A downside of hard forks is damaging bitcoin's immutability https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5em6vu/what_happens_if_segwit_doesnt_activate/dae1r6c/?context=3
Interesting analysis of miners incentives and how failure is possible, don't trust the miners for long term https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5gtew4/why_an_increased_block_size_increases_the_cost_of/daybazj/?context=2
waxwing on the meaning of cash and settlement https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5ei7m3/unconfirmed_transactions_60k_total_fees_14btc/dad001v/
maaku on the cash question https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5i5iq5/we_are_spoiled/db5luiv/?context=1
Digital gold funamentalists gain nothing from supporting a hard fork to larger block sizes https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5xzunq/core_please_compromise_before_we_end_up_with_bu/dem73xg/?context=1
Those asking for a compromise don't understand the underlying political forces https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ef7wb/some_comments_on_the_bip148_uasf_from_the/dia236b/?context=3
Nobody wants a contentious hard fork actually, anti-core people got emotionally manipulated https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5sq5ocontentious_forks_vs_incremental_progress/ddip57o/
The hard work of the core developers has kept bitcoin scalable https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3hfgpo/an_initiative_to_bring_advanced_privacy_features/cu7mhw8?context=9
Recent PRs to improve bitcoin scaleability ignored by the debate https://twitter.com/jfnewbery/status/883001356168167425
gmaxwell against hard forks since 2013 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=140233.20
maaku: hard forks are really bad https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zxjza/adam_greg_core_devs_and_big_blockers_now_is_the/df275yk/?context=2

Some metrics on what the market thinks of decentralization and hostile hard forks

The price history shows that the exchange rate drops every time a hard fork threatens: https://i.imgur.com/EVPYLR8.jpg
and this example from 2017 https://twitter.com/WhalePanda/status/845562763820912642
http://imgur.com/a/DuHAn btc users lose money
price supporting theymos' moderation https://i.imgur.com/0jZdF9h.png
old version https://i.imgur.com/BFTxTJl.png
older version https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CxqtUakUQAEmC0d.jpg
about 50% of nodes updated to the soft fork node quite quickly https://imgur.com/O0xboVI

Bitcoin Unlimited / Emergent Consensus is badly designed, changes the game theory of bitcoin

Bitcoin Unlimited was a proposed hard fork client, it was made with the intention to stop segwit from activating
A Future Led by Bitcoin Unlimited is a Centralized Future https://blog.sia.tech/a-future-led-by-bitcoin-unlimited-is-a-centralized-future-e48ab52c817a#.p1ly6hldk
Flexible transactions are bugged https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/57tf5g/bitcoindev_bluematt_on_flexible_transactions/
Bugged BU software mines an invalid block, wasting 13 bitcoins or $12k
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5qwtr2/bitcoincom_loses_132btc_trying_to_fork_the/
https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/5qx18i/bitcoincom_loses_132btc_trying_to_fork_the/
bitcoin.com employees are moderators of btc https://medium.com/@WhalePanda/the-curious-relation-between-bitcoin-com-anti-segwit-propaganda-26c877249976#.vl02566k4
miners don't control stuff like the block size http://hackingdistributed.com/2016/01/03/time-for-bitcoin-user-voice/
even gavin agreed that economic majority controls things https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5ywoi9/in_2010_gavin_predicted_that_exchanges_ie_the/
fork clients are trying to steal bitcoin's brand and network effect, theyre no different from altcoins https://medium.com/@Coinosphere/why-bitcoin-unlimited-should-be-correctly-classified-as-an-attempted-robbery-of-bitcoin-not-a-9355d075763c#.qeaynlx5m
BU being active makes it easier to reverse payments, increases wasted work making the network less secure and giving an advantage to bigger miners https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5g1x84/bitcoin_unlimited_bu_median_value_of_miner_eb/
bitcoin unlimited takes power away from users and gives it to miners https://medium.com/@alpalpalp/bitcoin-unlimiteds-placebo-controls-6320cbc137d4#.q0dv15gd5
bitcoin unlimited's accepted depth https://twitter.com/tdryja/status/804770009272696832
BU's lying propaganda poster https://imgur.com/osrViDE

BU is bugged, poorly-reviewed and crashes

bitcoin unlimited allegedly funded by kraken stolen coins
https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/55ajuh/taint_analysis_on_bitcoin_stolen_from_kraken_on/
https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/559miz/taint_analysis_on_btc_allegedly_stolen_from_kraken/
Other funding stuff
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zozmn/damning_evidence_on_how_bitcoin_unlimited_pays/
A serious bug in BU https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5h70s3/bitcoin_unlimited_bu_the_developers_have_realized/
A summary of what's wrong with BU: https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5z3wg2/jihanwu_we_will_switch_the_entire_pool_to/devak98/

Bitcoin Unlimited Remote Exploit Crash 14/3/2017

https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zdkv3/bitcoin_unlimited_remote_exploit_crash/ https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zeb76/timbe https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/5zdrru/peter_todd_bu_remote_crash_dos_wtf_bug_assert0_in/
BU devs calling it as disaster https://twitter.com/SooMartindale/status/841758265188966401 also btc deleted a thread about the exploit https://i.imgur.com/lVvFRqN.png
Summary of incident https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zf97j/i_was_undecided_now_im_not/
More than 20 exchanges will list BTU as an altcoin
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zyg6g/bitcoin_exchanges_unveil_emergency_hard_fork/
Again a few days later https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/60qmkt/bu_is_taking_another_shit_timberrrrr

User Activated Soft Fork (UASF)

site for it, including list of businesses supporting it http://www.uasf.co/
luke's view
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5zsk45/i_am_shaolinfry_author_of_the_recent_usedf1dqen/?context=3
threat of UASF makes the miner fall into line in litecoin
https://www.reddit.com/litecoin/comments/66omhlitecoin_global_roundtable_resolution/dgk2thk/?context=3
UASF delivers the goods for vertcoin
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/692mi3/in_test_case_uasf_results_in_miner_consensus/dh3cm34/?context=1
UASF coin is more valuable https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6cgv44/a_uasf_chain_will_be_profoundly_more_valuable/
All the links together in one place https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6dzpew/hi_its_mkwia_again_maintainer_of_uasfbitcoin_on/
p2sh was a uasf https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/v0.6.0/src/main.cpp#L1281-L1283
jgarzik annoyed at the strict timeline that segwit2x has to follow because of bip148 https://twitter.com/jgarzik/status/886605836902162432
Committed intolerant minority https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6d7dyt/a_plea_for_rational_intolerance_extremism_and/
alp on the game theory of the intolerant minority https://medium.com/@alpalpalp/user-activated-soft-forks-and-the-intolerant-minority-a54e57869f57
The risk of UASF is less than the cost of doing nothing https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6bof7a/were_getting_to_the_point_where_a_the_cost_of_not/
uasf delivered the goods for bitcoin, it forced antpool and others to signal (May 2016) https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/antpool-will-not-run-segwit-without-block-size-increase-hard-fork-1464028753/ "When asked specifically whether Antpool would run SegWit code without a hard fork increase in the block size also included in a release of Bitcoin Core, Wu responded: “No. It is acceptable that the hard fork code is not activated, but it needs to be included in a ‘release’ of Bitcoin Core. I have made it clear about the definition of ‘release,’ which is not ‘public.’”"
Screenshot of peter rizun capitulating https://twitter.com/chris_belcher_/status/905231603991007232

Fighting off 2x HF

https://twitter.com/MrHodl/status/895089909723049984
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6h612o/can_someone_explain_to_me_why_core_wont_endorse/?st=j6ic5n17&sh=cc37ee23
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6smezz/segwit2x_hard_fork_is_completely_useless_its_a/?st=j6ic2aw3&sh=371418dd
https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6sbspv/who_exactly_is_segwit2x_catering_for_now_segwit/?st=j6ic5nic&sh=1f86cadd
https://medium.com/@elliotolds/lesser-known-reasons-to-keep-blocks-small-in-the-words-of-bitcoin-core-developers-44861968185e
b2x is most of all about firing core https://twitter.com/WhalePanda/status/912664487135760384
https://medium.com/@StopAndDecrypt/thats-not-bitcoin-this-is-bitcoin-95f05a6fd6c2

Misinformation / sockpuppets

https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6uqz6k/markets_update_bitcoin_cash_rallies_for_three/dlurbpx/
three year old account, only started posting today https://archive.is/3STjH
Why we should not hard fork after the UASF worked: https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6sl1qf/heres_why_we_should_not_hard_fork_in_a_few_months/

History

Good article that covers virtually all the important history https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/long-road-segwit-how-bitcoins-biggest-protocol-upgrade-became-reality/
Interesting post with some history pre-2015 https://btcmanager.com/the-long-history-of-the-fight-over-scaling-bitcoin/
The core scalabality roadmap + my summary from 3/2017 https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2015-Decembe011865.html my summary https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5xa5fa/the_core_development_scalability_roadmap/
History from summer 2015 https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/5xg7f8/the_origins_of_the_blocksize_debate/
Brief reminders of the ETC situation https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6nvlgo/simple_breakdown_of_bip91_its_simply_the_miners/dkcycrz/
Longer writeup of ethereum's TheDAO bailout fraud https://www.reddit.com/ethereumfraud/comments/6bgvqv/faq_what_exactly_is_the_fraud_in_ethereum/
Point that the bigblocker side is only blocking segwit as a hostage https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinMarkets/comments/5sqhcq/daily_discussion_wednesday_february_08_2017/ddi3ctv/?context=3
jonny1000's recall of the history of bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6s34gg/rbtc_spreading_misinformation_in_rbitcoinmarkets/dl9wkfx/

Misc (mostly memes)

libbitcoin's Understanding Bitcoin series (another must read, most of it) https://github.com/libbitcoin/libbitcoin/wiki/Understanding-Bitcoin
github commit where satoshi added the block size limit https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/63859l/github_commit_where_satoshi_added_the_block_size/
hard fork proposals from some core devs https://bitcoinhardforkresearch.github.io/
blockstream hasnt taken over the entire bitcoin core project https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/622bjp/bitcoin_core_blockstream/
blockstream is one of the good guys https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6cttkh/its_happening_blockstream_opens_liquid_sidechain/dhxu4e
Forkers, we're not raising a single byte! Song lyrics by belcher https://gist.github.com/chris-belche7264cd6750a86f8b4a9a
Some stuff here along with that cool photoshopped poster https://medium.com/@jimmysong/bitcoin-realism-or-how-i-learned-to-stop-worrying-and-love-1mb-blocks-c191c35e74cb
Nice graphic https://twitter.com/RNR_0/status/871070843698380800
gmaxwell saying how he is probably responsible for the most privacy tech in bitcoin, while mike hearn screwed up privacy https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/6azyme/hey_bu_wheres_your_testnet/dhiq3xo/?context=6
Fairly cool propaganda poster https://twitter.com/urbanarson/status/880476631583924225
btc tankman https://i.redd.it/gxjqenzpr27z.png https://twitter.com/DanDarkPill/status/853653168151986177
asicboost discovery meme https://twitter.com/allenscottoshi/status/849888189124947971
https://twitter.com/urbanarson/status/882020516521013250
gavin wanted to kill the bitcoin chain https://twitter.com/allenscottoshi/status/849888189124947971
stuff that btc believes https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ld4a5/serious_is_the_rbtc_and_the_bu_crowd_a_joke_how/djszsqu/
after segwit2x NYA got agreed all the fee pressure disappeared, laurenmt found they were artificial spam https://twitter.com/i/moments/885827802775396352
theymos saying why victory isnt inevitable https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6lmpll/explaining_why_big_blocks_are_bad/djvxv2o/
with ignorant enemies like these its no wonder we won https://bitco.in/forum/threads/gold-collapsing-bitcoin-up.16/page-999 ""So, once segwit2x activates, from that moment on it will require a coordinated fork to avoid the up coming "baked in" HF. ""
a positive effect of bcash, it made blockchain utxo spammers move away from bitcoin https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/76lv0b/cryptograffitiinfo_now_accepts_bitcoin_cash/dof38gw/
summary of craig wright, jihan wu and roger ver's positions https://medium.com/@HjalmarPeters/the-big-blockers-bead6027deb2
Why is bitcoin so strong against attack?!?! (because we're motivated and awesome) https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/64wo1h/bitcoin_unlimited_is_being_blocked_by_antivirus/dg5n00x/
what happened to #oldjeffgarzik https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/6ufv5x/a_reminder_of_some_of_jeff_garziks_greatest/
big blockers fully deserve to lose every last bitcoin they ever had and more https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinMarkets/comments/756nxf/daily_discussion_monday_october_09_2017/do5ihqi/
gavinandresen brainstorming how to kill bitcoin with a 51% in a nasty way https://twitter.com/btcdrak/status/843914877542567937
Roger Ver as bitcoin Judas https://imgur.com/a/Rf1Pi
A bunch of tweets and memes celebrating UASF
https://twitter.com/shaolinfry/status/842457019286188032 | https://twitter.com/SatoshiLite/status/888335092560441345 | https://twitter.com/btcArtGallery/status/887485162925285377 | https://twitter.com/Beautyon_/status/888109901611802624 | https://twitter.com/Excellion/status/889211512966873088 | https://twitter.com/lopp/status/888200452197801984 | https://twitter.com/AlpacaSW/status/886988980524396544 | https://twitter.com/BashCo_/status/877253729531162624 | https://twitter.com/tdryja/status/865212300361379840 | https://twitter.com/Excellion/status/871179040157179904 | https://twitter.com/TraceMayestatus/849856343074902016 | https://twitter.com/TraceMayestatus/841855022640033792 | https://fs.bitcoinmagazine.com/img/images/Screen_Shot_2017-08-18_at_01.36.47.original.png
submitted by belcher_ to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Start Here for Much Wallet WOW!

EDIT 2017-02-10: A word about Nodes

There is a discussion about nodes that came up today, where it seems I'm discouraging people from running the full QT/Core client. Yes and No. What I'm trying to make sure people understand is how things work, and that it is NOT mandatory to run a client in order to use Dogecoins (and yes, I realise that browser-based tools like coinb.in and wallet sweepers are 'clients' by strict definition).
That said, more nodes is absolutely a good thing for the network. Preferrably full nodes. How do you run a full node? Just run Core/QT and open up Port 22556 on your router so it can connect to more than 8 peers. What will it cost you? You need your machine to be on 24/7/365, you need enough storage for the full blockchain (currently about 20Gb. Bitcoin is over 120Gb) and enough bandwidth to keep it in sync and share blocks with peers. A couple of Gb a month, most likely. This is best done with a desktop on a wired broadband link. Or maybe a hosted VM in the cloud. :)

EDIT 2017-01-09: Wallets WITHOUT Clients

Since I started helping people on /BitcoinBeginners, I'm getting a lot of questions about how to use wallets without running clients or trusting third parties. So here are a couple of resources that will make that possible, and not just for Dogecoin:
Multi-Coin Wallet Generator Now supporting 129 currencies! Coinb.in Start by setting the currency, found in the gear wheel in the Broadcast tab. Dogecoin Wallet Sweeper Redeem 'paper' wallets containing up to about 100 UTXOs. Bitinfo Charts My favourite block explorer, handles a bunch of cryptos.
Using these resources, it is possible to hold, receive and spend coins in various currencies, without having to run QT or a 'lite' client. You can also download and run the pages on your own device.

EDIT 2016-11-23: SEMANTICS about MINING! :P

Even though there is already a section on mining below, it has been suggested given the huge number of posts on the subject that this needs to be made clearer. Since people get their panties in a twist over the word 'dead', lets change that...

MINING IS DEAD!

MINING DOGECOIN IS UNPROFITABLE!

Put simply, there is no way to mine Dogecoin and make a profit because of the massive hashpower provided by industrial-scale Litecoin miners. Mining Doge directly stopped being viable when our hashrate exploded with the introduction of AuxPoW. Mining with CPU's and GPU's died when ASICs were introduced. And mining with a laptop WILL kill your laptop and cost you a fortune to repair or replace. Mining Litecoin with an exchange that also mines Doge and others will earn less than the electricity consumed, and you won't recover your costs. Probably ever, but certainly not in any reasonable time.
Mining other currencies may be a thing, but that's beyond our scope here. This is /Dogecoin, not /GetRichMiningCryptos after all. If you want to mine the newest scamcoin for fun and profit, look elsewhere for advice. :/
Oh, and most important:

READ BEFORE YOU POST!

At any given time, there are half a dozen posts on the frontpage just like the one you're about to write, where the answers have already been given. Read them. Don't make people waste their time repeating themselves because you were too lazy to bother reading stuff. :P
So there I was, having a quiet Sundy arvo bludge, as you do, when 42points turned up on Facebook and asked me to write a new sticky post for /dogecoin. Why would he do this, when he should be having a bludge himself, I hear you ask? Well, seems he was doing exactly that, and wanted to fob off the work he’s too slack to do himself. ;) Ah well, being a sucker for punishment, I’ll grudgingly oblige I guess.
OK, first things first.

The Clients:

Dogecoin Core 1.10.0 2015-Nov-01
Bootstrap file for Core to save some download time.
Dogecoin Core Guide Wiki
MultiDoge v0.1.7 2016-Jan-31
Android Dogecoin Wallet 2.0.8 2016-Jan-18
Android Coinomi Wallet
Java Cate 0.14 alpha 2 Multicoin wallet 2016-Feb-14
Exodus multicoin wallet
iOS Doughwallet

Do you REALLY need a client?

Wallet ELI5
UTXO ELI5
Paper Wallet Generator
Sample HTML Wallet List
Dogetipbot subreddit and website
Dogechain Wallet
Block.io Wallet
Exchanges
BTC38
Poloniex
CoinSpot
ShapeShift - Not really an exchange, rather a currency trader.

Mining

Litecoinpool
Prohashing
Zpool

Explorers

BitInfoCharts - My favourite, has charts!
chain.so
dogechain.info
/dogecoindev where the devs hang out

More Info

Dogeducation
Technical Wiki
Preev currency value calculator

EDITS:

From peoplma
I was wondering if you could add just a couple things. A link to the coinomi android wallet, it's probably the best one out there. And a sentence somewhere along the lines of "if you need help with any dogecoin software you are welcome to make a post, but PLEASE include your OS, version number of the client, and any relevant transaction IDs that you are willing to share" if you can fit that in somewhere.
Also, if you want to link to Prohashing, I'm pretty sure it's the only Scrypt mining pool that will actually pay out in doge. The others I know of pay out in litecoin or bitcoin. And it's a profit switching multipool, so gives a better return than just mining ltc/doge.
And there's these two wiki articles I thought would be helpful to link /dogecoin/wiki/technical for those technically minded newbies or intermediate users who want to dig a little deeper. And maybe a link to /dogecoin/wiki/dogecoincoreguide next to the link for dogecoin core.
From pts2002
Finally a proper sticky post! Here's some other stuff you could add:
zpool.ca mining pool - You can get paid in pretty much any coin, and you can mine in multiple algos (currently mining lyra2v2 with my GPU). Doing about 500Ð/day
shapeshift.io exchange - My favourite exchange, quick and easy. No registration required!
Also, you should add some blockchain explorers!
chain.so - Support for bitcoin, litecoin and doge.
dogechain.info - Official blockchain explorer. Includes a wallet (already mentioned). Live update currently not working (?)
EDIT: Here's another thing I found!
preev.com currency value calculator - Easy way to check the value of your dogecoins (or bitcoins, or litecoins, or peercoins)!
submitted by Fulvio55 to dogecoin [link] [comments]

[ELI5] How to send coins using Coinb.in

How to send coins from ANY wallet using https://coinb.in/#settings

Why?

Because cold wallets, such as those stored offline in a text file as I keep recommending in my standard advice below:
All you need is a text file to put your wallets in, like this example from https://walletgenerator.net/?currency=Dogecoin
1,"D7WBUpdgLRtG6WyPsqjhaKiJR65X8ZGnkZ","6KieLMW1poAzNVnmLuQZqA262gxEQ51eLGdDK8e2GL2B4LHCKKb" 2,"DM8LT16d49zHr8ByXbUwZb9UBXDGMaZRdc","6Ktgxdv6vN9v2bDHwcJBBb3oMRAgXJumESzBnxaXUSGFZoq6pWQ" 3,"D5UCa51AfxjtVHQ46oYXe2YfkctTeLXPhx","6L2WSPWadRYCwt2L1CxH6zC7PoTYY3KyjxdiUoCqi5eyq6hQKvj"
Use https://coinb.in/#settings to move coins. Download both sites and run them offline. Use https://bitinfocharts.com/dogecoin/ to check balances and transactions. See http://www.mocacinno.com/blog/create-sign-broadcast-transactions-using-coinb/ for coinb.in tutorial. And read the ELI5s (and my history) for more info.
Are without doubt THE SAFEST way to store your coins. Plus, they consume no resources. No bandwidth, no network stress for every node we have, no storage of 20Gb+ blockchains, no weeks of waiting for things to sync, no tearing your hair out and posting desperate pleas for help, and most importantly, no coins irretrievably lost because you or your client screwed up.

What?

Wallets, ALL WALLETS are nothing but numbers. Very large numbers, but fundamentally no different from “7”, “42”, “911” or a phone number. They cannot be created nor destroyed, and you either know them or you don’t. Anyone who knows a key can use it to spend any coins it controls. Anyone who doesn’t know it, can’t. Don’t be the guy who doesn’t know his own keys. Keep them safe. Make copies. Keep those safe. Don’t let your friends, kid brother or random burglar find them, but don’t lose them either.
The only other thing you need for a fully functional wallet is a way to spend coins. Coinb.in is such a way. There are others, such as DogeCoinMultiSig.org which tomcarbon built.
Oh, and you can and should download it and run it locally.

Where?

The default entry point for coinb.in is https://coinb.in/#settings because this settings page is very well hidden. Its in the tiny gear wheel on the Broadcast page.
Looking across the top of the page, you can see
  • + New
  • Verify
  • Sign
  • Broadcast
  • Wallet
  • About
We’re only going to use three of these. New, Sign, Broadcast.
Now, keep in mind that coinb.in is an old Bitcoin tool which tomcarbon added Dogecoin to. Sometimes it thinks its dealing with Bitcoin still, so if you see anything odd, go and make sure you’ve selected Dogecoin in the Settings page.

When?

This tool should be the only place you spend coins. Sure, some clients may look more convenient, but they all suffer from a very big coin-losing flaw. Whenever you split a UTXO, they create a new wallet to send the change to. And they DON’T TELL YOU! This means unless you back up after every transaction, you run a high risk of finding all your coins have ‘disappeared’ from your wallet, and you don’t recognise where they went.
So if you use a client for the convenience as well as a text list of your wallets, you won’t know to add a new wallet to your masterfile. Its best to ditch the clients entirely.

How?

Now we come to the nitty-gritty. Lets use those three wallets above and assume that #1 is the source, #2 the destination and #3 the change wallet. Note that these won’t actually work, as none of them have ever been used, but they will do as examples.
New Transaction
Located at the bottom of the New menu, this will give you a page to enter your wallets and amounts.
In the top field, you enter your source address or Key. If you use the key, it will calculate the address when you click the Load button, which should match what you expected. Note that Load only brings in the first 100 UTXOs. This is so that you can retrieve coins from high-volume wallets which would kill any client. Coinb.in is in fact the ONLY WAY to do this, as even QT falls over around 600 UTXOs.
You will see the total balance that was loaded in the Transaction Fee field. And also in the Inputs tab, where you can go to adjust which UTXOs to spend.
Now you need to add the wallet(s) and amounts to send to them. Lets suppose the source contained a single UTXO for 1,000 Doge. You want to send 500 of them. So you would enter the #2 address in the Address field, and 500 in the Amount field. The Fee now changes to 500, which is not what you want.
So you click the + button to bring up a new line, enter the change address and the other 500, making the fee zero.
And you’re done. Check that the Fee is indeed zero. Check that the amounts shown in the Outputs and Inputs tabs match exactly.

THIS IS CRITICAL!

There is a bug which will send all the coins to the miners if the Outputs exceed the Inputs. I would have expected the Fee to show as negative in such a situation, but it doesn’t. BE WARNED!
Once everything looks right, hit the Submit button.
This will give you a block of hex code. Copy it.
Sign
Go to the Sign tab and paste it. Add your private key for the source wallet and click Submit. Note this can be done offline for safety.
This will give you another block of hex, the SIGNED transaction.
Broadcast
Copy this and paste it in the Broadcast tab and click Submit.
That’s it. Your coins are on their way. Make a cuppa and settle in while they arrive in a minute or three.
Note: All fields retain their values unless you refresh the page! This can be a boon when doing multiple transactions, such as when emptying a huge wallet. But it can also be a trap for the unsuspecting. Refresh or close the window when you’re done.

Who?

Who should use this?
Absolutely EVERYONE!
Even if you’re wedded to your client in some satanic blood-contract, you should still know how this works, because sooner or later you’re going to have a problem you can’t fix without it.
Definitely download the site and store it on every device you have. On every USB backup of your wallets. On your phone (well, except iOS which doesn’t do local HTML), etc, etc, etc.
Oh, and if you’re a programmer SmartyShibe, do consider improving the code over on GitHub.
EDIT: https://github.com/OutCast3k/coinbin added courtesy of AtomHearth
submitted by Fulvio55 to dogecoin [link] [comments]

I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the first part of the series introducing the basic concept of blockchain and what makes it reliable.

An introduction to blockchain and reliability
- The common, most complete description of Blockchain.
- Why Blockchain and not a traditional database system?
- The ELI5 explanation of the technical concept.
- Sending transactions.
- Confirming and registering the transactions on the blockchain.
The common, most complete description of Blockchain Let's start at the beginning. What is blockchain? The most common sentence used to describe blockchain would be this: “Blockchain, a decentralized, digital, safe, distributed ledger that can store any data.”
Let’s break this down.
Blockchain. We will save this for last, because this is where it gets technical. Let’s go with the phrase “collector of data” for now. In the sense of how Bitcoin is used today, a blockchain is a“collector of data of who has sent which transactions to whom.””
Decentralized. This means there is no central power that can dictate changes. There is no entity that can unilaterally alter what is registered on the blockchain or change the rules of how data is added without consensus amongst the community. Instead, a blockchain is governed by a group of entities who, using the same program, can all add the data and check each other. Anyone with the right computer can join this group. Not everyone from the group adds the same data, they are dealt data randomly. Also they check each other randomly. The checking is done using math, which is implemented in a way that makes the system unforgeable. This is what people like most about blockchain, because it results in this rule: what is added to the blockchain, is added in such a way that adding the data can’t be forged, and what is added, is set in stone. It is registered for ever, and there is no one who can change that.
Digital. The data is stored on hard disks, accessed electronically, and transferred over the internet.
Safe. What is stored is stored in a secure and safe way, so data can’t be tampered with. By anyone. Neither while being stored nor after it is stored.
Distributed ledger. A record book, a balance. A timestamped collection of data.
Store any data. A blockchain can be designed to store any type of data.
Why Blockchain and not a traditional database system? So, if you want to store something and you want it to be done in an unforgeable way, blockchain might be the way for you to do so. The first thing you might think is, why not use a notary or a bank? But before you finish your thought you realize a notary costs you a bit of a penny. And banks… Do they always act in our interest? Only if our interest is their interest. Blockchain reduces these people to middle men, and it gives you the possibility to cut out those middle men altogether. And we’re not only talking banks or notaries. There’s a use case for anything where two parties want to transfer information and put that immutably on record, while the two parties have a lack of trust towards each other. It’s a sure and safe way to send,receive, and store information.
Blockchain is a true innovation. It uses computers and the internet to create a network, a decentralized entity, that we can trust to immutably register valuable data in a very cost-efficient way. This is why blockchain will take over the data industry eventually. Why not by storm? Because it takes over from a powerful establishment. The banks are the ones who see it coming first. Governments also distrust blockchain, because they can’t control it. There is some resistance obviously, but they see opportunity too. How politics work out in the end though, is not what I want to discuss here. So let’s get over to the technical side.
The ELI5 explanation of the technical concept. The actual technology is more complicated, and there are varieties of blockchain, but the basics pretty much come down to this. The data is sent in the form of messages/transactions. The transactions are composed by the one sending the transaction. To be able to send transactions you will need to become part of the blockchain system. You need to create a digital identity. You can do so, using a “wallet”. This is basically a program that can create your identity for the blockchain and also the program you use to send transactions and manage your funds (your data). So using the wallet, you create your address (which you could see as your “account”). This consists of two parts for you. A public key, which is a number to which your transactions will be connected on the blockchain. And a private key that consists of a bunch of characters. This is your “password”. So now you own an address: the private key and the public key. This is all you need, so there is no need to register any personal info or anything, you have the private key and the public key and you can receive and send funds to other addresses. You use the private key to log into your “account” on the wallet. Once you are in your wallet, you state how much funds you want to send and to what address you want to send this.
Sending transactions. When you send the transaction, it will be broadcasted to the blockchain network. But before the actual transaction will be sent, it is formed into a package, created by the wallet. This is done automatically by the wallet, out of sight of the user. (When I say package, I mean that the information that is sent is inextricably connected in the sense that the signature, source, destination and amount can’t be separately altered.) That package ends up carrying roughly the following info: The public key to point to the address where the funds will be coming from, the amount that will be transferred and the address the funds will be transferred to. This package also carries another important thing, a signature, created by the wallet, using the private key. The signing is done using a mathematical algorithm. After that, using math again, the signature can be checked again for authenticity by a second party. This signature proves that you are the rightful owner and you can send funds from that public key address. The package is then sent out of the secure wallet environment to the blockchain network. This network consists of people who run a specialized computer to process transactions. Those computers are called “nodes”, and the person or company who owns the computer is called a “miner”. The nodes don’t need to trust the sender or establish the sender’s "identity”, because the sender proves he is the rightful owner by adding the signature that corresponds with the public key which can be verified by math. And because the transaction is signed and contains no confidential information, private keys, or credentials, it can be publicly broadcast using any network that is convenient. As long as the transaction can reach a node that will spread it into the network, it doesn’t matter how it is transported to the first node.
Confirming and registering the transactions on the blockchain. After the transaction is sent to the network, it is ready to be processed. A quick summary of the way transactions are handled: miners collect all transactions that people are sending in a “transaction pool”. There, transactions wait until a miner puts a number of these collected transaction in a package of transactions: a block. This is where a block is constructed. After he has constructed a block, he has to solve a hash puzzle applied on his list of transactions that he registered on his block. A hash puzzle is a mathematical problem that is solved by the node. The node that has solved his hash puzzle is allowed to put his block on the network. Other miners will check the block using math again and confirm after they did so. This way the blocks, and thus your transactions, are added to the blockchain. Once a block is added, it’s there forever and can’t be changed.
Conclusion If one understands what is discussed so far in this article, the following conclusion can be made: security in transaction handling and registration, relies on math.
Summarized, the security and reliability of blockchain is double-barreled. First it takes away the interference of a third party that places and/ or can alter the data on the ledger. And secondly it relies on verifiable, but unforgeable math. This is what makes blockchain more trustworthy than conventional ledger systems.
Part 2, The next article in the series will be about the two most important mathematical concepts in blockchain.
Part 3, Quantum resistant blockchain vs Quantum computing.
Part 4A, The advantages of quantum resistance from genesis block, A
Part 4B, The advantages of quantum resistance from genesis block, B
Part 5, Why BTC will be vulnerable sooner than expected.
Part 6, Failing shortcuts in an attempt to accomplish Quantum Resistance
submitted by QRCollector to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

Top 12 Cryptocurrencies Ranked by Risk-Adjusted Return

TL;DR: The Sharpe Ratio is an excellent tool to assess risk-adjusted return on an investment. 4 cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Dash, Monero, and Bitcoin Cash) all have Sharpe Ratio’s over 2, which signals a good investment per risk involved.

The Long Version

How many people have told you that cryptocurrencies are too risky? A fraud? A Ponzi Scheme?
Bitcoin has increased over 1,500% over the last year, but none of this is new. Cryptocurrencies have been on a tear unlike anything we have ever seen…just look at how it compares to the various bubbles of the past:
Full Disclosure: not calling it a bubble…just providing context!
Comparison of Bitcoin to Past Bubbles
But you…you are a savvy investor.
Outsized gains tell us nothing except something increased from a little to alot.

Total Returns are not adjusted for risk

Let’s take the following quiz…one is the right answer, but you won’t be graded for it.
Which of the following investments would you rather be in?
  1. Crypto A started at $1, went to $500, back down to $1, back up to $600
  2. Crypto B started at $1, went to $100, to $300, to $600
Both investments have the same return, but which would you choose?
I’ll give you some ti…oh you already have an answer? You choose #2?
Exactly.
Most investors look at total returns over various timeframes — one-day, one-month, one-year— when evaluating an investment. These returns are misleading since they aren’t adjusted for risk.
Just look at the example above —Crypto A made a massive return on the initial investment, but that does not mean it was a compelling investment opportunity.
“Using volatility as a measure of risk is nuts. Risk to us is 1) the risk of permanent loss of capital, or 2) the risk of inadequate return.” — Charlie Munger
If only there was a better way…

What is the Sharpe Ratio?

The ELI5 Version of the Sharpe Ratio
The Sharpe ratio is a measure used heavily in the finance world for calculating risk-adjusted returns.
The calculation solves the issue of misleading total returns by taking the average return earned above the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk — an absolute measure of risk.
Investors can directly compare multiple investments and evaluate the amount of risk taken on to generate the same percentage points of return, which makes for a much fairer comparison.
While this does make for a much better comparison, you are smart and know that even though something may have a higher Sharpe Ratio, that does not indicate it is less volatile…the higher ratio actually indicated that the investment risk-to-reward profile is much better or proportional vs. another.
So for this article, I will show you how to implement the Sharpe Ratio in the wonderful world of cryptocurrencies.

Top Cryptocurrencies by Sharpe Ratio

With your new, sweet investment tool, you can calculate the Sharpe Ratios of top cryptocurrencies.
But because I love you (and to save time), I went ahead and did it for you:
Top 12 Cryptocurrencies by Sharpe Ratio
Not surprisingly, Bitcoin ranks as the top risk-adjusted earning cryptocurrency from the top 12. Even though Bitcoin is very volatile, the returns have matched the craziness.
What is interesting to me, is all the way at the bottom — our dear friend NEO, aka the “Chinese Ethereum”. A Sharpe Ratio of 0.03 in an industry of 1s, 2s, 3s, and a 4 is honestly…terrible. But a large portion of this is due to NEO stumbling out of the gate after getting listed on Bitfinex, with returns of -18%, -13%, and -24% in the first 10 days of trading.

My Gift to you — a tool to automatically calculate Sharpe Ratio

A post from me would not be complete without a tool for you to utilize what we just talked about.
The spreadsheet pulls in the top 12 cryptocurrencies from the Bitfinex exchange, and calculates the Sharpe Ratio for each.
The user can modify the risk free rate, calculations, and any of the currencies currently being pulled.
First time install
The tool is nice and simple to use. It requires about 2 minutes to setup, then after that you are good to go.
  1. Make of copy of the worksheet: Click Here
  2. Install the Spreadstreet Google Sheets Add-in
  3. Follow the instructions and log-in to the add-in
  4. Formulas in the sheet should update

RESOURCES

Download the add-in: https://spreadstreet.io/tools/google-sheets-add-in
Help: https://spreadstreet.io/docs
First time install and login:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aLjtPR4T2bg
Bitfinex Candles endpoint help: https://spreadstreet.io/knowledge-base/bitfinex-api-candles-endpoint/

RELATED POSTS

A Super Simple Cryptocurrency Arbitrage Spreadsheet for Finding Mismatched Prices
10 Statistical Price Predictions for 10 Cryptocurrencies
High-Flyers and Shitcoins: What I Learned from Analyzing CoinMarketCap Data in Google Sheets
7 Smart Ethereum Price Prediction Methods for HODL’ers

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

John Young is the founder of Spreadstreet.io, former Financial Analyst for a big-ass company, and runner-up in the 6th grade spelling bee. He would have invested in Google if he knew about it...and had any money.
He is the author of the Spreadstreet blog, which has over 3 readers (not a typo). He hopes to hit 10, but honestly writing is a lot of work.
submitted by 1kexperimentdotcom to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Madness: How to Simulate Bitcoin Prices in Google Sheets

Original Medium post can be found here: https://medium.com/@spreadstreet/bitcoin-madness-how-to-simulate-bitcoin-prices-in-google-sheets-c61cb42f26ed
You know the scenario...
Bitcoin had another huge increase, but you missed the opportunity. You wanted to get in, but your gut instinct told you no. And rightfully so...no one knows where the price is going to go. What if you invested, and it had another 20% loss? These sort of price movements are common in the volatile world of cryptocurrencies.
Seriously...how far can this Bitcoin price really go?

BITCOIN IS A VOLATILE BEAST

Risk analysis must be a part of every decision you make.
You are constantly faced with uncertainty, ambiguity, and variability. Variability, in the case of Bitcoin, unlike anything we have ever seen before. And even though we have unprecedented access to information, we can’t accurately predict the future.
Luckily, we have methods that enable you to see all the possible outcomes of your decisions, and assess the impact of risk.

WHERE TO START?

Running simulations can prepare us for the worst.
Monte Carlo simulation (also known as the Monte Carlo Method) allows for better decision making under uncertainty.
One of the most common ways to estimate risk is the use of a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). From Investopedia:
For example, to calculate the value at risk (VaR) of a portfolio, we can run a Monte Carlo simulation that attempts to predict the worst likely loss for a portfolio given a confidence interval over a specified time horizon - we always need to specify two conditions for VaR: confidence and horizon. (For related reading, see The Uses And Limits Of Volatility and Introduction To Value At Risk (VAR) - Part 1 and Part 2.)
A MCS can be run with many different models. Our own process will be:
  1. Specify a model (for here, we will use geometric Brownian motion)
  2. Get historical daily bitcoin prices
  3. Calculate daily returns
  4. Name the daily return range
  5. Summary statistics
  6. Simulate a year
  7. Simulate a year many times
  8. Multi-year summary statistics
  9. Quick analysis of results

STEP 1. WTF IS GEOMETRIC BROWNIAN MOTION?

The geometric Brownian motion (GBM) is a statistical method that is used heavily in the forecasting of stock prices. The reason the process is so attractive for this is because of the following:
The GBM is technically a Markov process, which is a fancy way of saying "A random process whose future probabilities are determined by its most recent values." Said another way, past price information is already incorporated and the next price movement is "conditionally independent" of past price movements.
Math geeks have a habit of making things infinitely more complicated than they have to be. I will do my best to make this as simple as possible.
The formula for GBM is as follows:
gBm formula
Where:
This formula can be broken down into two very important terms: "drift" and "shock".
For each time period, our model assumes the price will "drift" up by the expected return. But the drift will be shocked (added or subtracted) by a random shock. The random shock will be the standard deviation "s" multiplied by a random number "e". This is simply a way of scaling the standard deviation.

STEP 1A. THE THUNDER GOD ELI5

The ELI5 version: The thunder god Zeus is a great god. A just god.
But Zeus is subject to wild mood swings.
Every day Zeus can shoot his magic lightning into the price of Bitcoin, and cause it to go up or down.
Some days he is in such a good mood, that he shocks the price up by a random amount. On other days, he is in such a poor mood that he shocks the price down for opposing him.
Zeus Striking Down the Price
And thus, we have the essence of GBM: a series of steps with an expected upward drift, where each step is hit with a plus/minus shock (which is a function of the stock's standard deviation).

STEP 2. HISTORICAL DAILY BITCOIN PRICES

Copy the raw data scores from coinmarketcap. Paste the data into your own spreadsheet.
For this exercise, your columns will be: Time, Open, Close, High, Low, Volume.
Columns Setup OHLCV
Want to automatically pull in Bitcoin prices? Use the Spreadstreet Google Sheets Add-in.

STEP 3. CALCULATE DAILY RETURNS

Calculate daily returns from the "Close" price. in H2 put the formula:
=LN(C2/B2) 
Drag it all the way down to the end of the prices to fill the entire Returns column
Calculate Daily Returns

STEP 4. NAME THE DAILY RETURNS RANGE

Create a named range from the returns column, called returns, to make our life easier. Highlight all the data in column H, i.e. cells H1:H1000, then click on the menu Data > Named ranges… and call the range returns:
Name the range returns

STEP 5. SUMMARY STATISTICS

Set up a small summary table with the close, daily volatility, annual volatility, daily drift, annual drift, and mean drift of our population. The formulas are:
In K1, enter:
=C2 
and name it close.
In K2, enter:
=STDEV(returns) 
and name it dailyVolatility
In K3, enter:
=dailyVolatility*SQRT(365) 
and name it annualVolatility
In K4, enter:
=AVERAGE(returns) 
and name it dailyDrift
In K5, enter:
=dailyDrift*365 
and name it annualDrift
In K6, enter:
=dailyDrift-0.5*dailyVolatility^2 
and name it meanDrift
Create Summary Statistics Table

STEP 6. SIMULATE A YEAR

Setup the yearly simulation table with Time, Normdist, Log Return, and Simulated Price

Time

In J12 put 0, and in J13 put:
=J12+1 
Drag it all the way down to your preferred forecast timeframe. Here I simulated a year (365 days), so I copied down to J377
Time

Normdist

Let’s set up the normal distribution curve values.
Google Sheets has a formula NORMDIST which calculates the value of the normal distribution function for a given value, mean and standard deviation. Since we ascribe to the random walk theory, we want to use a mean of 0, and a standard deviation of 1.
In K13, put the formula:
=NORMINV(RAND(),0,1) 
Drag it all the way down to K377 to fill the whole Normdist column:
Normdist

Log Return

To get the percentage of daily stock movement, we will calculate log return.
In L13, put the formula:
=meanDrift+dailyVolatility*K13 
Copy the formula all the way down to L377:
Log Return

Simulated Price

Now to the real meat. Let's calculate the simulated Bitcoin price.
In M12 put the Close price, and in M13, put:
=M12*EXP(L13) 
Copy the formula all the way down to M377:
Simulated Price

Forecasted Bitcoin price for one year

Let's see what the pricing data looks like.
Select from M12 to M377, then Insert - Chart and select line chart:
Simulated Price for One Year
We have now successfully completed one simulation. And depending on your results, they could look normal...or downright crazy.

STEP 7. SIMULATE A YEAR MANY TIMES

We completed one simulation, but we want to run many different trials.
Create a scenario tab, setup a table to simulate 1,000 different one-year trials. In A3 to A1003, put the numbers 1 through 1000.
In B3, put the formula:
=Close*EXP((annualDrift-0.5*annualVolatility^2)+annualVolatility*norminv(rand(),0,1)) 
Copy the formula down all the way. Name this range "scores":
Simulate Bitcoin Prices for Many Years

STEP 8. MULTI-YEAR SUMMARY STATISTICS

Set up a small summary table with the mean, median, standard deviation, min, max, and range of our new population. The formulas are:
=AVERAGE(scores) =STDEVP(scores) =MIN(scores) =MAX(scores) =E6-E5 
Multiyear Summary Statistics

STEP 9. QUICK ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

My results will look different than yours (due to the random nature of NORMDIST and the time you pulled the Bitcoin prices). But let's take a look at the results:
Mean $27,147 Median $16,097 St. Dev $37,243 Min $556 Max $479,586 Range $479,029 3sd $1,486 2sd $3,005 1sd $5,850 Cur $16,098 1sd $43,896 2sd $81,998 3sd $190,129 
How to read: We can be 95% certain that the price of Bitcoin will fall between $3,005, and $81,998 in one year.
Wait really? Should I buy? No, this is not telling you to buy. This should be one tool of many to help you in your buying and risk decisions.
Lognormal Distribution of Bitcoin Prices

CONCLUSION

You now know how to complete a geometric Brownian motion analysis of Bitcoin prices. Congratulations!
Good statistical analysis methods can be scary, but they don't have to be. Here we covered off on a great method for estimating future Bitcoin prices, which can also be applied to other cryptocurrencies.
With this new tool in place, you can be confident in your risk analysis methods by seeing all the possible outcomes of your decisions, and assess the impact of risk.
Deliberate. Analytical. Intelligent.

WANT YOUR OWN COPY?

Simulate Bitcoin Prices Download

RELATED POSTS

High-Flyers and Shitcoins: What I Learned from Analyzing CoinMarketCap Data in Google Sheets
7 Smart Ethereum Price Prediction Methods for HODL’ers

About the Author

John Young is the founder of Spreadstreet, former financial analyst for a big-ass company, and runner-up in the 6th grade spelling bee. He would have invested in Google if he knew about it...and had any money.
He is the author of the Spreadstreet blog, which has over 3 readers (not a typo). He hopes to hit 10, but honestly writing is a lot of work.
submitted by 1kexperimentdotcom to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

Quantom Proof, question..

Any source where it ELI5 the quantom resistance of IOTA? I imagine a quantom computer being able to try a huge amount of combinations in a much shorter time than the ones we have now.. so, lets say to try multiple combinations for a bitcoin private key i need X amount of time.. because of the 81 characters in IOTA i "only" need X+Y amount of time, but its still crackable.. or am i misunderstanding something? If we increase the amount of characters of BTC private keys to 81 as well, why would it be less secure than IOTA? Also, apart from BTC comparison.. how long would it take a quantom computer to bruteforce a IOTA seed? Any calculation available on that?
submitted by Nimra2121 to Iota [link] [comments]

Thoughts about last night's Halving party (pics inside)

These are the pics I took at the halving party in Melbourne last night. Apologies for large size and low quality... poor light, shaky handheld iPod and lack of time to build a proper page are all to blame. Anyway... http://imgur.com/a/kjCSa
Yes, I parked along the river and walked in. It was a nice, albeit cold, night and the hordes were out in strength. The cake was yummy. There was free WiFi. The booze flowed freely. Newbies were being tipped $3 in BTC after downloading the Airbitz wallet client. There was pizza (pizza shop at the bottom of the stairs). I stole a balloon. That's a hardware node in the glass (perspex?) box in the mining museum. One of the MBTC organisers shaved half his beard (halving, gettit?). They has Satoshi's White Paper up on the wall (and one guy was taking pics of the pages rather than download the PDF.. go figure). The young guy with the can could do complex math in his head as fast as we could use our calculators (what's 65 divided by 17? He nailed it to 12 decimals). And that's an awesomely bright chandelier shop across the road! :)
So, what can we learn from all this merriment?
The big one I think is

Dogecoin needs vested interests

While MBTC is a non-profit technology incubator, it is housed in the offices of BTC miner The Bitcoin Group, with full access to its resources and support. OK, so having a Bitcoin millionaire and his company as benefactors is pretty cool, and the closest we've got is probably CoinSpot, which doesn't even come close (lets not talk about Moolah, who was all smoke and mirrors). But unless we get someone with a vested interest in growing the pie, we're never going to get into this game properly.

We need activity

Its all fine and wonderful to point to this sub as our home, but look at the numbers. 34 people here right now, out of 77,000 mostly dead or fake accounts. MBTC uses Meetup to spam its weekly events and was able to pull a hundred people out of thin air for this bash. Half of them knew nothing about BTC, but now have functional wallets with useful amounts of coin in them.
I'm not saying we can replicate what they do, but at the very least we could get off our arses and gatecrash occasionally. I KNOW we have shibes in Melbourne. I've tried to get them to assorted meetups, and not one has ever turned up. The best we ever achieved was five in Brisbane for the launch of a Dogecoin ATM. This is frankly pathetic. And I'll bet its far worse in most parts of the world, this being a tech hotspot with a strong crypto community.
MBTC hold at least one event every week. Usually two. And about 30 people show up consistently, out of a pool of several hundred. They have a studio where they produce regular podcasts. They have parties like this one. They're constantly dragging noobs into the fold and hyping Bitcoin. Why aren't we there in numbers promoting a balanced view of cryptos and tipping everyone Dogecoins?

We need a script

And I don't mean "" either. I mean the basic info people need to get started (You know, like my ELI5 posts). Wallet clients. Basic blockchain info and how the network works, so people don't amass huge numbers of UTXOs and break their wallets. Some history. Resource lists. Exchange lists and how trading works. Free coins! And so on... all in tangible forms people can hold and examine at leisure. Its all fine and wonderful to blow a fortune on a car or a billboard, but if you don't back it up, its completely wasted.
There's probably a lot more to add, but I'm getting a bit TL:DR for myself here, and probably nobody's read this far anyway. Let the downvotes begin! :(
PS: the MBTC 1st birthday party pics are at http://imgur.com/a/NpXz8 if you're interested.

TL:DR:

 Much WOW Many Doge Such Coin Đ1 = Đ1 So TL:DR! 
submitted by Fulvio55 to dogecoin [link] [comments]

Top 12 Cryptocurrencies Ranked by Risk-Adjusted Return

TL;DR: The Sharpe Ratio is an excellent tool to assess risk-adjusted return on an investment. 4 cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Dash, Monero, and Bitcoin Cash) all have Sharpe Ratio’s over 2, which signals a good investment per risk involved.

The Long Version

How many people have told you that cryptocurrencies are too risky? A fraud? A Ponzi Scheme?
Bitcoin has increased over 1,500% over the last year, but none of this is new. Cryptocurrencies have been on a tear unlike anything we have ever seen…just look at how it compares to the various bubbles of the past:
Full Disclosure: not calling it a bubble…just providing context!
Comparison of Bitcoin to Past Bubbles
But you…you are a savvy investor.
Outsized gains tell us nothing except something increased from a little to alot.

Total Returns are not adjusted for risk

Let’s take the following quiz…one is the right answer, but you won’t be graded for it.
Which of the following investments would you rather be in?
  1. Crypto A started at $1, went to $500, back down to $1, back up to $600
  2. Crypto B started at $1, went to $100, to $300, to $600
Both investments have the same return, but which would you choose?
I’ll give you some ti…oh you already have an answer? You choose #2?
Exactly.
Most investors look at total returns over various timeframes — one-day, one-month, one-year— when evaluating an investment. These returns are misleading since they aren’t adjusted for risk.
Just look at the example above —Crypto A made a massive return on the initial investment, but that does not mean it was a compelling investment opportunity.
“Using volatility as a measure of risk is nuts. Risk to us is 1) the risk of permanent loss of capital, or 2) the risk of inadequate return.” — Charlie Munger
If only there was a better way…

What is the Sharpe Ratio?

The ELI5 Version of the Sharpe Ratio
The Sharpe ratio is a measure used heavily in the finance world for calculating risk-adjusted returns.
The calculation solves the issue of misleading total returns by taking the average return earned above the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk — an absolute measure of risk.
Investors can directly compare multiple investments and evaluate the amount of risk taken on to generate the same percentage points of return, which makes for a much fairer comparison.
While this does make for a much better comparison, you are smart and know that even though something may have a higher Sharpe Ratio, that does not indicate it is less volatile…the higher ratio actually indicated that the investment risk-to-reward profile is much better or proportional vs. another.
So for this article, I will show you how to implement the Sharpe Ratio in the wonderful world of cryptocurrencies.

Top Cryptocurrencies by Sharpe Ratio

With your new, sweet investment tool, you can calculate the Sharpe Ratios of top cryptocurrencies.
But because I love you (and to save time), I went ahead and did it for you:
Top 12 Cryptocurrencies by Sharpe Ratio
Not surprisingly, Bitcoin ranks as the top risk-adjusted earning cryptocurrency from the top 12. Even though Bitcoin is very volatile, the returns have matched the craziness.
What is interesting to me, is all the way at the bottom — our dear friend NEO, aka the “Chinese Ethereum”. A Sharpe Ratio of 0.03 in an industry of 1s, 2s, 3s, and a 4 is honestly…terrible. But a large portion of this is due to NEO stumbling out of the gate after getting listed on Bitfinex, with returns of -18%, -13%, and -24% in the first 10 days of trading.

My Gift to you — a tool to automatically calculate Sharpe Ratio

A post from me would not be complete without a tool for you to utilize what we just talked about.
The spreadsheet pulls in the top 12 cryptocurrencies from the Bitfinex exchange, and calculates the Sharpe Ratio for each.
The user can modify the risk free rate, calculations, and any of the currencies currently being pulled.
First time install
The tool is nice and simple to use. It requires about 2 minutes to setup, then after that you are good to go.
  1. Make of copy of the worksheet: Click Here
  2. Install the Spreadstreet Google Sheets Add-in
  3. Follow the instructions and log-in to the add-in
  4. Formulas in the sheet should update

RESOURCES

Download the add-in: https://spreadstreet.io/tools/google-sheets-add-in
Help: https://spreadstreet.io/docs
First time install and login:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aLjtPR4T2bg
Bitfinex Candles endpoint help: https://spreadstreet.io/knowledge-base/bitfinex-api-candles-endpoint/

RELATED POSTS

A Super Simple Cryptocurrency Arbitrage Spreadsheet for Finding Mismatched Prices
10 Statistical Price Predictions for 10 Cryptocurrencies
High-Flyers and Shitcoins: What I Learned from Analyzing CoinMarketCap Data in Google Sheets
7 Smart Ethereum Price Prediction Methods for HODL’ers

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

John Young is the founder of Spreadstreet.io, former Financial Analyst for a big-ass company, and runner-up in the 6th grade spelling bee. He would have invested in Google if he knew about it...and had any money.
He is the author of the Spreadstreet blog, which has over 3 readers (not a typo). He hopes to hit 10, but honestly writing is a lot of work.
submitted by 1kexperimentdotcom to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Tax on Bitcoin - totally confused!!

Hi
I’m a bit thick when it comes to tax and need someone to ELI5.
over the last 4 years I've been living/working in China and with my wages buying Bitcoin. With the BTC I bought alt coins (ethereum, factom, sia - just to name a few).
I'm still living in China and thinking of coming home soon and cashing in my coins.
The plan is to convert the coins I have back into Bitcoin and then find an exchange in the UK to cash the bitcoin out.
Now reading about Bitcoin and tax in the UK I'm not sure where I stand. Looks to me like I need to pay CGT when I cash them in in the UK?
I've bought them whilst paying tax on my wages in china and not cashed any in, so didn't need to pay any kind of tax there for profit.
Do I need to calculate the profit I made from initially buying BTC to finally selling them in the UK, as I can't see how I can calculate how much I paid for them as, I paid RMB and BTCChina.com doesn't seem to have a way of exporting trades. OR do I need to calculate the profit I made on the Alt coins as well?
All of the other coins I bought were bought using BTC, on Poloniex.com, I can export trades between BTC and the coins I bought, but the other exchange I used cryptys.com has gone down so no way of getting any data from there. So not sure how to calculate the cost/ profit for them too.
When I return to the UK I’ll be unemployed and hopefully live off my BTC/ Alt coin profit.
I’m not sure what percentage I will need to pay to the tax man and what proof of profit/loss/expenses I’d need.
If I’m over complicating things or not making sense please ask questions.
Thanks in advance . (I never dreamt I’d ever have a problem like this. lol) [TAX]
submitted by CtpBlack to UKPersonalFinance [link] [comments]

How is ICX decentralised?

Edit: Now that I think about it, this system along with NEO’s system could be even more decentralised than Bitcoin and Ethereum... since B and E both have the top 4 miners generating the majority hash.
Can someone ELI5 how ICX is decentralised?
From what I read in the white paper, it looks like the ICON foundation and its C-Reps are basically the “king” or “the government” in the entire system. Sure you can argue that it is decentralised because the C-Reps are all separate entities, but let’s be real here, the United States/ European Union have the same structure with its states and participants.
Aside from a restriction in ICX supply increase every year through an algorithm approach and calculating blocks, it looks to be the same as the current fiat currency system.
Sure Bitcoin may have a 51% attack but hard forks may prevent further damage if it happens. You can’t even hard fork ICX if the ICON foundation or C-Reps become corrupt
submitted by tecknit to helloicon [link] [comments]

So I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the first part of the series introducing the basic concept of blockchain and what makes it reliable.

An introduction to blockchain and reliability
- The common, most complete description of Blockchain.
- Why Blockchain and not a traditional database system?
- The ELI5 explanation of the technical concept.
- Sending transactions.
- Confirming and registering the transactions on the blockchain.
The common, most complete description of Blockchain Let's start at the beginning: what is blockchain? The most common sentence used to describe blockchain would be this: “Blockchain, a decentralized, digital, safe, distributed ledger that can store any data.”
Let’s break this down.
Blockchain. We will save this for last, because this is where it gets technical. Let’s go with the phrase “collector of data” for now. In the sense of how Bitcoin is used today, a blockchain is a“collector of data of who has sent which transactions to whom.””
Decentralized. This means there is no central power that can dictate changes. There is no entity that can unilaterally alter what is registered on the blockchain or change the rules of how data is added without consensus amongst the community. Instead, a blockchain is governed by a group of entities who, using the same program, can all add the data and check each other. Anyone with the right computer can join this group. Not everyone from the group adds the same data, they are dealt data randomly. Also they check each other randomly. The checking is done using math, which is implemented in a way that makes the system unforgeable. This is what people like most about blockchain, because it results in this rule: what is added to the blockchain, is added in such a way that adding the data can’t be forged, and what is added, is set in stone. It is registered for ever, and there is no one who can change that.
Digital. The data is stored on hard disks, accessed electronically, and transferred over the internet.
Safe. What is stored is stored in a secure and safe way, so data can’t be tampered with. By anyone. Neither while being stored nor after it is stored.
Distributed ledger. A record book, a balance. A timestamped collection of data.
Store any data. A blockchain can be designed to store any type of data.
Why Blockchain and not a traditional database system? So, if you want to store something and you want it to be done in an unforgeable way, blockchain might be the way for you to do so. The first thing you might think is, why not use a notary or a bank? But before you finish your thought you realize a notary costs you a bit of a penny. And banks… Do they always act in our interest? Only if our interest is their interest. Blockchain reduces these people to middle men, and it gives you the possibility to cut out those middle men altogether. And we’re not only talking banks or notaries. There’s a use case for anything where two parties want to transfer information and put that immutably on record, while the two parties have a lack of trust towards each other. It’s a sure and safe way to send,receive, and store information.
Blockchain is a true innovation. It uses computers and the internet to create a network, a decentralized entity, that we can trust to immutably register valuable data in a very cost-efficient way. This is why blockchain will take over the data industry eventually. Why not by storm? Because it takes over from a powerful establishment. The banks are the ones who see it coming first. Governments also distrust blockchain, because they can’t control it. There is some resistance obviously, but they see opportunity too. How politics work out in the end though, is not what I want to discuss here. So let’s get over to the technical side.
The ELI5 explanation of the technical concept: Here follows the explanation of the technical concept. The actual technology is more complicated, and there are varieties of blockchain, but the basics pretty much come down to this: The data is sent in the form of messages/transactions. The transactions are composed by the one sending the transaction. To be able to send transactions you will need to become part of the blockchain system. You need to create a digital identity. You can do so, using a “wallet”. This is basically a program that can create your identity for the blockchain and also the program you use to send transactions and manage your funds (your data). So using the wallet, you create your address (which you could see as your “account”). This consists of two parts for you: a public key, which is a number to which your transactions will be connected on the blockchain. And a private key that consists of a bunch of characters. This is your “password”. So now you own an address: the private key and the public key. This is all you need, so there is no need to register any personal info or anything, you have the private key and the public key and you can receive and send funds to other addresses. You use the private key to log into your “account” on the wallet. Once you are in your wallet, you state how much funds you want to send and to what address you want to send this.
Sending transactions: When you send the transaction, it will be broadcasted to the blockchain network. But before the actual transaction will be sent, it is formed into a package, created by the wallet. This is done automatically by the wallet, out of sight of the user. (When I say package, I mean that the information that is sent is inextricably connected in the sense that the signature, source, destination and amount can’t be separately altered.) That package ends up carrying roughly the following info: The public key to point to the address where the funds will be coming from, the amount that will be transferred and the address the funds will be transferred to. This package also carries another important thing: a signature, created by the wallet, using the private key. The signing is done using a mathematical algorithm. After that, using math again, the signature can be checked again for authenticity by a second party. This signature proves that you are the rightful owner and you can send funds from that public key address. The package is then sent out of the secure wallet environment to the blockchain network. This network consists of people who run a specialized computer to process transactions. Those computers are called “nodes”, and the person or company who owns the computer is called a “miner”. The nodes don’t need to trust the sender or establish the sender’s "identity”, because the sender proves he is the rightful owner by adding the signature that corresponds with the public key which can be verified by math. And because the transaction is signed and contains no confidential information, private keys, or credentials, it can be publicly broadcast using any network that is convenient. As long as the transaction can reach a node that will spread it into the network, it doesn’t matter how it is transported to the first node.
Confirming and registering the transactions on the blockchain: After the transaction is sent to the network, it is ready to be processed. A quick summary of the way transactions are handled: miners collect all transactions that people are sending in a “transaction pool”. There, transactions wait until a miner puts a number of these collected transaction in a package of transactions: a block. This is where a block is constructed. After he has constructed a block, he has to solve a hash puzzle applied on his list of transactions that he registered on his block. A hash puzzle is a mathematical problem that is solved by the node. The node that has solved his hash puzzle is allowed to put his block on the network. Other miners will check the block using math again and confirm after they did so. This way the blocks, and thus your transactions, are added to the blockchain. Once a block is added, it’s there forever and can’t be changed.
Conclusion: If one understands what is discussed so far in this article, the following conclusion can be made: security in transaction handling and registration, relies on math. - The construction and continuation of the blockchain itself relies on hashing algorithms. - The signing of transactions relies on private- public key cryptography. No existing computer can make calculations fast enough to reverse this math in any usable timeframe.
Summarized, the security and reliability of blockchain is double-barreled: First it takes away the interference of a third party that places and/ or can alter the data on the ledger. And secondly it relies on verifiable, but unforgeable math. This is what makes blockchain more trustworthy than conventional ledger systems.
The next article in the series will be about the two most important mathematical concepts in blockchain.
submitted by QRCollector to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

ELI5: Why aren't there more miners?

EDIT: I get my misunderstanding now. This comment clarified it for me. I misunderstood the "new block every 10 minutes" concept and was not aware that only 1 block total - across the entire bitcoin network - is added to the bitcoin blockchain every 10 minutes.
Thank you for everyone who helped clarify things for me. This explains why more individual, independent miners are not really likely.
Now I admit I don't understand the nuances of the protocol and internals to the technology, but I feel I've gathered a few things from lurking and my modest reading over time (please correct any that are inaccurate):
  1. Mining "new" bitcoins is a lot of trial and error of computationally challenging calculations and all but inaccessible to all but the largest mining farms.
  2. Due to this, mining is expensive and dominated by a few giant farms, often equipped with hardware specifically designed for mining.
  3. However, transactions are also processed by miners.
  4. There is frequently a large backlog of transactions that are waiting to be processed (supply of miners is well below demand for transaction processing)
  5. Due to this supply/demand imbalance, Bitcoin transaction fees are getting pretty expensive.
If that is all accurate, then with the increase demand for transactions and the escalating fees, why aren't there more individual miners focusing on transaction processing?
I've read the "Will I earn money by mining bitcoin?" sidebar and bitcoinmining.com and other articles, but they seem to primarily focus on mining "new" bitcoins, talking about how rare they are, how much trial and error there is and how established firms with custom hardware make it all be impossible for someone to make any money independently (and even as part of a mining network).
I understand there's still intentional computational complexity and PoW, etc, but if one can passively make $10 processing a couple hundred dollar transaction that's currently just sitting in a queue with thousands of other transactions waiting, why aren't more people doing it?
Am I just radically underestimating the scale of complexity here? Is it so outrageous that it's simply not reasonable? Would it really take days to process a single transaction on even a reasonably beefy personal computer?
I just have never quite understood this seeming persistent miner shortage. Thanks.
submitted by tocano to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

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